Are lupin products Vegetarian/ Vegan?
Yes, it is a plant based product.
Is it Halal & Kosher?
Yes, it is a plant based product.
Is it Gluten Free?
Yes, lupins are part of the legume family meaning they are naturally gluten free.
Is it Genetically Modified?
No, commercially grown lupins in Australia are not genetically modified. We source the highest quality, non GM lupins from Western Australian growers where roughly 80% of the entire world’s lupins are grown.
Are there Allergy Issues?
“A limited number of foods are responsible for most significant allergic reactions. These foods/food groups are milk, egg, peanut, soy, nuts from trees, fish, shellfish, and seeds. However, virtually any food can trigger an allergic reaction in some persons [Bush et al].”
Bush, RK, Hefle, SL. Food allergens. Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr 1996; 36 Suppl:119.
Food allergy is becoming more common. The prevalence of food allergy in the general population has been roughly estimated to be around 1-3% in adults and 4-6% in children, lupin falls within this range. A link exists between the consumption of a food in a country and its allergy frequency. This sensitivity to a food can be influenced by the cooking methods but also by an individual’s genetic characteristics.
Points that need to be made clear – sensitization (positive skin prick test) does not equal allergy.
This just signifies that the body had been exposed to the particular protein and has a heightened ‘awareness’. The larger the ‘weal’ of the skin prick test = increase likelihood of ‘clinical allergy’.
Oral challenge is the only way to establish – true clinical allergy.
What is the allergen status of lupin?
Indisputable fact: ingestion of lupin as a constituent of a meal may cause an allergic reaction in some people (estimated 1% population) who are predisposed. The severity of the reaction ranges from mild to extreme ie anaphylactic shock. But all ‘allergens’ have the potential to generate an anaphylactic shock in their respective ‘allergic individual’. The reaction is dependent more on the ‘hypersensitivity’ of the individual and the dose of the allergen.
Given this knowledge the European Union has included lupin, in the list of 14 food allergens, which have to be indicated by reference to the source allergen whenever they, or ingredients made from them, are used at any level in pre-packed foods, including alcoholic drinks. The list consists of cereals containing gluten, crustaceans, molluscs, eggs, fish, peanuts, nuts, soybeans, milk, celery, mustard, sesame, lupin and sulphur dioxide at levels above 10mg/kg, or 10 mg/litre, expressed as SO2.
Australian authorities are currently in the process of updating the list and it appears that they also may follow the European Union’s lead.
Please find attached three documents reviewing Lupin Allergy:
First is a recent review of the European situation. The summary of the finding was:
In a European study published in 2009, less than 2% of a large group of patients evaluated for food allergies showed positive allergy tests for lupin. Compared to peanut (8% of patients) and soy (11% of patients), sensitization to lupin wasn’t particularly common.
However, patients with positive allergy tests for other legumes were most likely to also show positive allergy tests to lupin, although most of these people didn’t have allergic reactions when eating lupin. There does appear to be cross re-activity between peanut and lupin, since some people with peanut allergy (4%) can have allergic reactions to lupin.
Europe is a good test case as it is estimated that 500,000 tonnes of food consumed annually, contain lupin.
Second is the Australian Food Safety Review, which is an independent review – commissioned by the Grains Foods CRC in 2002 on Lupin Allergy.
Thirdly we have The European Unions – Scientific Opinion on Lupin Allergy.
What is the maximum daily intake?
Food allergy is an excessive immune response to a food due to the presence of an antigen in this food. An antigen is not a toxic substance.
Ingested doses of lupin reported to have triggered clinical reactions range from 265 to 1000 mg, but the lowest dose triggering reactions has not been established.
There is little information in the literature on the lowest doses of lupin that could cause a clinical allergic reaction. Monere-Vautrin and Colleagues challenged orally with lupin flour six children allergic to peanut, in double-blind placebo-controlled trial and reported allergic reactions in five of them at doses of lupin flour from 265 to 1000mg. There are no research reports which show the minimum amount that causes an allergic reaction. Allergic reaction is not associated with toxicity and varies greatly between individuals. Moreover, the reaction may not be related to the amount of intake, and therefore, it is necessary to be cautious.
What are the symptoms of allergy?
The following was extracted from the “The EFSA Journal (2005) 302, 1-11” – report
Different patterns of allergy – Three clinical patterns of allergy to lupin emerge from the literature:
a) Sensitisation via ingestion among individuals with no known allergy to peanuts (Matheu et al., 1999; Smith et al., 2004).
b) Sensitisation and triggering via inhalation (Novembre et al., 1999; Moreno-Ancillo et al., 2005) and occupational exposures among individuals with no known allergy to peanuts (Crespo et al., 2001; Parisot et al., 2001).
c) Triggering a reaction via ingestion among individuals with a primary allergy to peanuts (Hefle et al., 1994; Moneret-Vautrin et al. 1999; Kanny et al., 2000; Faeste et al., 2004). The Cross-re activity of peanut-lupin in pre-preliminary investigations appears to be 5% of the peanut suffers may be triggered by eating lupin.
Clinical symptoms reported
Clinical symptoms reported after lupin inhalation or ingestion are similar to those reported for other inhalant or food allergens (NDA, 2004). Individuals with inhalant allergies suffer from asthma, rhino-conjunctivitis and dermatitis and their symptoms include throat tingling, cough, wheeze dyspnoea, cyanosis and reduction of FEV1 (Moneret-Vautrin et al., 1999 and 2001; Novembre et al., 1999; Crespo et al., 2001; Parisot et al., 2001). Individuals reacting after ingestion show symptoms of mucosal erythema, facial oedema, angioedema, rhinoconjunctivitis, throat tingling, cough, asthma, urticaria, atopic dermatitis and abdominal symptoms (Hefle et al., 1994; Gutiérrez et al., 1997; Moneret-Vautrin et al., 1999; Smith et al., 2004). Oral allergy-like symptoms confined to the oral cavity have also been reported (Romano et al., 1997). Cases of lupin anaphylaxis have been reported by Matheu et al. (1999), Smith (2004), and Radcliffe et al. (2005) (see Table 1).
Cross re activity issues
If you are allergic to peanuts you may also cross react to legumes, including lupin. If you are allergic to peanuts there is a small probability (approximately 5%) that you may cross react to lupin.
Is there any particular age group more likely to be allergic prone?
The prevalence of primary allergy to lupin in the general population is unknown and currently seems to be low. It is likely to be dependent on local eating habits and other routes of exposure. However from preliminary studies – it appears lupin allergy is not something that is ‘grown – out off”.
Lupin sounds amazing! Why haven’t I heard of lupin until now?
Until recently virtually all of the grain has been sold for use in intensive animal industries, with about 15,000 tonnes being used for foods. There are case examples from around the world where initiatives have been taken to introduce varying types of foods containing lupin.
The estimated global consumption of lupin foods is 500,000 tonnes annually. The Australian human domestic market is still a ‘fledgling boutique industry”. Lupin has been utilized in food products in Australia since 1987, in various forms IE pasta lines and bread products.
Below is a summary of lupin food utilization:
Bodhis Bakehouse: Bakery Manufacturing lupin bread. Using ASL.
Gluten Free Shop: Online shop specialised in gluten free products
Sells lupin loaf and other gluten free foods.
Lupin 8: Health Food Maker
Sells Lupin 8, the health food product made mostly from lupin flour (Australian Sweet Lupin).
Other bakery products:
In 2000, the Ministry of Health and Welfare (the present day, Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare) permitted the import of lupin for human consumption for use in soy sauce only, and 6 tonnes of whole lupins for food were imported to Japan for the first time. The government authorisation to import lupins for the use of soy sauce was applied at that time and the Ministry of Health and Welfare limited the authorisation specifically to soy sauce use. The old established soy sauce, miso (soybean paste) and sake producer in Nagoya made 24,000 litres of soy sauce made from lupins in place of soybeans, and wheat and salt. For 2 years from 2001, they sold lupin sauce as “organic beans sauce” (500ml bottle products, there were also gift packaging ones). The ingredients labelled on the product are “organic lupin, organic wheat, salt”. Import of Lupin to use for soy sauce production has been permitted in Japan from 2000. The same maker made lupin miso by way of trial. The quality was up to their expectation, but the product was not commercialized. In addition to the above, lupin sprouts (sprouted ASL) have been sold at the supermarket since 2007.
Soja Austria (Austria): Lupin flour.
Barentz / L.I. Frank (Netherlands): Manufacture and sell various types of lupin flour. Using Albus, Yellow and Australian Sweet Lupin varieties.
NaProFoods: Producer of functional lupin proteins and gluten free lupin flour. Lupins are used in meat and bakery products, sweets, ice cream and sauces.
Terrena Ingredients (Lup’ingredients): Producer of lupin flours and concentrates for application in meat and bakery products, sweets, ice cream and sauces.
Fa. L.I.FRANK: Producer of lupin flours and concentrates for application in meat and bakery products, sweets, ice cream and sauces.
Lupina GmbH, Visbek (Germany): Manufacture and sell various types of lupin premix.
Firma Schnitzer GmbH & Co KG, Offenburg, (Germany): Gluten Free Products and premixes.
PEMA (Germany): Manufacture and sell various types of breads containing lupin.
GLUTANO (Germany): Gluten free products including lupin bread.
Windmill Organics (England): Organic, natural and health foods, selling gluten free lupin breads, crispbreads and pizza bases.
Lupidor (Switzerland): Materials for sausage, croissant, mayonnaise, chocolate and ice cream, using lupin flour and protein concentrate.
Avelup, Temuco (Chile): Lupin flour
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